Archive for the ‘bodily injury’ Category

Nevada Wrongful Death Cases – What Do They Involve?

When I was a rookie attorney, I handled my first wrongful death case. That case involved an engine part that came off a moving car and penetrated the windshield of a vehicle approaching in the opposite direction and hit a front seat passenger in the head killing her instantly.

Initially I had to do a lot of research to be able to understand what was involved with a wrongful death suit. After having initiated several of these cases, I can now state that wrongful death cases are not much different than a normal liability injury lawsuit with a few procedural exceptions.

WHO CAN FILE A WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIM?

Heirs and personal representatives can file a wrongful death lawsuit. An “heir” is anyone that can inherit from the decedent, if the decedent died without a will. This often includes the decedent’s surviving spouse or domestic partner, children, parents or brothers and sisters of the decedent. The right to file a wrongful death lawsuit is controlled by the laws of intestate succession NRS 134.030-NRS 134.210. For example, if there is a surviving spouse and children then NRS 134.040 would apply.

NRS 134.040 Surviving spouse and issue

1.If the decedent leaves a surviving spouse and only one child, or the lawful issue of one child, the estate goes one-half to the surviving spouse and one-half to the child or the issue of the child.

2.If the decedent leaves a surviving spouse and more than one child living, or a child and the lawful issue of one or more deceased children, the estate goes one-third to the surviving spouse and the remainder in equal shares to the children and the lawful issue of any deceased child by right of representation.

People who cannot file wrongful death suits are fiances, foster children, unadopted step children and unmarried partners, even if they are beneficiaries under the decedent’s will.

WHAT IS A WRONGFUL DEATH CASE?

Every person has the duty imposed by case law to abstain from injuring another person or his property.

A wrongful death case can be based upon: intentional conduct, negligence (not intentional conduct) or strict liability for ultra hazardous activities or defective products which cause a person’s death.

Therefore, a wrongful death case is a liability case that results in the death of the injured person.

Nevada’s has a wrongful death statute states as follows:

NRS 41.085 Heirs and Person representatives may maintain action.

1. As used in this section, “heir” means a person who, under the laws of this State, would be entitled to succeed to the separate property of the decedent if the decedent had died intestate. The term does not include a person wo is deemed to be a killer of the decedent pursuant to chapter 41B of NRS, and such a person shall be deemed to have predeceased the decedent as set forth in NRS 41B.330.

2. When the death of any person, whether or not a minor, is caused by the wrongful act or neglect of another, the heirs of the decedent and the personal representatives of the decedent may each maintain an action for damages against the person who caused the death, or if the wrongdoer is dead, against the wrongdoer’s personal representatives, whether the wrongdoer died before or after the death of the person injured by the wrongdoer. If any other person is responsible for the wrongful act or neglect, or if the wrongdoer is employed by another person who is responsible for the wrongdoer’s conduct, the action may be maintained against that other person, or if the other person is dead, against the other person’s personal representatives.

3. An action brought by the heirs of the decedent pursuant to subsection 2 and the cause of action of that decedent brought or maintained by the decedent’s personal representatives which arose out of the same wrongful act or neglect may be joined.

4. The heirs may prove their respective damages in the action brought pursuant to subsection 2 and the court or jury may award each person pecuniary damages for the person’s grief or sorrow, loss of probable support, companionship, society, comfort and consortium, and damages for pain, suffering or disfigurement of the decedent. The proceeds of any judgment for damages awarded under this subsection are not liable for any debt of the decedent.

5. The damages recoverable by the personal representatives of a decedent on behalf of the decedent’s estate include:

(a) Any special damages, such as medical expenses, which the decedent incurred or sustained before the decedent’s death, and funeral expenses; and

(b) Any penalties, including, but not limited to, exemplary or punitive damages, that the decedent would have recovered if the decedent had lived, bu do not include damages for pain, suffering or disfigurement of the decedent. The proceeds of any judgment for damages awarded under this subsection are liable for the debts of the decedent unless exempted by law.

The Nevada legislature passed our wrongful death statute to compensate immediate family members for specific losses resulting from the death of a close relative and to provide financial support to widows and orphans of people killed by a wrongdoer’s actions.

Various statutes of limitation may apply to wrongful death claims. Generally, if the case is not filed within two (2) years of the date of death the plaintiffs will lose the right to file an action.

COMPENSATION

An individual’s financial compensation for wrongful death can include:

  • Grief and sorrow;
  • Loss of probable support;
  • Loss of companionship, society, comfort and consortium; and
  • Pain suffering and disfigurement of the decedent.

The decedent’s estate can recover for:

  • Decedent’s medical expenses;
  • Funeral expenses; and
  • Punitive damages – for the egregious conduct of the defendant causing the decedent’s death.

PROCEDURAL EVOLUTION OF A WRONGFUL DEATH CASE

1. Obtain copies of all official reports and photographic evidence related to the accident.

2. If liability is not very clear, hire necessary experts to evaluate the liability causes of action (e.g. tire blow out case – hire an accident reconstruction expert and a tire expert).

3. In the event that no formal probate is required on the decedent’s estate, appoint a Special Administrator for the Decedent Estate and publish a Notices to Creditors as required by probate law.

4. Obtain any copies of the decedent’s medical bills and records and, if necessary, and hire a medical expert who can render opinions that the decedent’s cause of death was caused by the accident.

5. Hire an economist to render opinions on the value of claims for probable support and the value of non-economic damages for grief, sorrow, etc.

6. Submit a demand for settlement to any applicable liability insurance carrier.

7. If the case doesn’t settle, file and serve a wrongful death suit within the applicable statute of limitations.

8. If the case settles or goes to judgment and the decedent’s estate receives compensation, go back to probate and follow the required procedures to close out the decedent’s estate.

PARTING COMMENTS ON WRONGFUL DEATH

As you can see from this blog, wrongful death cases can be very expensive and time consuming. What needs to be done at the beginning of these cases is to determine how much insurance coverage is available to cover damages. Sometimes there may be multiple claimants (with each retaining separate counsel) when the decedent has a large family.

When liability insurance coverage is high, then the advance of expenses by the attorney may be justified. However, when the adverse party has limited coverage and limited assets, the decision must be made to accept or reject the minimum liability limits and pursue the individual or entity in litigation in an attempt to obtain judgment against the adverse party’s assets. There is nothing that prevents the adverse party or entity to file bankruptcy in an effort to extinguish any claim or judgment against them.
Sometimes on auto accident wrongful death cases we can accept minimum auto insurance liability limits, so that we can pursue first party coverages such as underinsured motorists coverages to provide further compensation to our clients.

The reality of wrongful death claims is that in many of these cases there is insufficient insurance to fully compensate the heirs and the decedent’s estate for their damages.

Remember that criminal charges against the adverse party causing the wrongful death are separate from civil actions for wrongful death. O.J. Simpson was acquitted of murder charges for the death of his wife Nicole Brown because the standard of proof in criminal cases is beyond a reasonable doubt. But, Nicole Brown’s family prevailed in their civil suit against Simpson where the standard of proof was the preponderance of evidence, a much lower standard.

Hopefully, this blog provided you with a better understanding of what is involved with a wrongful death case in Nevada, in the event that you have the misfortune to be directly affected by one.

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department Will Not Respond To Non-Injury Fender Benders

The Las Vegas Metropolitan  Police Department announced Monday, February 24, 2014, that beginning March 3, 2014,officers will no longer be responding to minor non-injury fender bender car accidents.

Metro Police says officers are being stretched too thin, trying to get to these types of crashes.  According to Metro Police, an average of 250 man-hours per week is dedicated to these types of wrecks.

Officers will continue to respond to injury accidents and hit-and-run incidents.  They will also respond when a driver in a wreck refuses to exchange insurance information.

Almost everyone knows that fender bender accidents do produce injuries.  The problem with this new policy is that many spinal musculoskeletal injuries do not manifest their symptoms until 24 to 48 hours after involvement in a traumatic event.  Often these musculoskeletal spinal injuries involve nerve root irritation or spinal disc involvement as a pain generator and lead to expensive treatment and diagnostics.  Some people become chronic from these injuries.  This new Metro policy degrades the injury producing potential of fender bender accidents.  Although the police reports and accompanying citations issued by Metro is not 100% conclusive to insurance companies in confirming liability for an accident, they go a long way in resolving an insurance company’s determination of the liability aspect of a claim, so that property damage claims can be resolved in a expeditious manner.  The new Metro policy will mean that accidents investigated by insurance adjusters will take longer.  Accident victims whose vehicles are dangerous to drive, are illegal to drive, or are non-driveable will be either forced to drive their unsafe, illegal and/or damaged vehicles or be without transportation in cases where victims do not carry their own rental coverage or cannot afford to pay their deductible to have their care repaired through their own insurance.

So who makes the decision that the accident is a “non-injury fender bender?”  How will Metro decide if an accident is an injury producing accident?  For Metro to respond to an accident, does a victim need to be transported from the accident scene to the hospital, thus incurring medical bills for the transport, hospital, ER doctor and radiologist?  The bills for emergent care can average at least $3,000 to $5,000.

The number one reason that most residents of Las Vegas get involved with Metro is their involvement in a motor vehicle accident.  So, if it now takes 250 hours a week to investigate all minor traffic accidents, that doesn’t seem like a lot of time and manpower to devote to traffic accident investigation.

If you have one of these non-investigated fender bender accidents, the adverse insurance company will most likely deny the accident injury claim because there is no traffic accident report.

If injuries arise from these accidents and these cases go to trial, a jury will probably be influenced by the fact that the accident wasn’t investigated by the police and impliedly reduce the significance of the accident.

Accident victims will need to hire attorneys to initiate more litigation to resolve these claims.  Under this new policy, Metro will lose revenue because traffic citations will not be issued to the at-fault drivers.  Even minor traffic violations now have fines in the $200 to $500 range.  If it takes an officer  two (2) hours to investigate an accident, the citations issued are compensation back to the City for the use of the officer’s time.

Because of the current economy, a great percentage of drivers on our roads have no insurance or they have expired or lapsed insurance.  The fines on these “no insurance” tickets are high.  In order to reduce the ticket from a fine above $1,000.00, the uninsured driver must obtain insurance after the fact.  This makes uninsured drivers obtain insurance which is a benefit to everyone.

Metro charges $10.00 for a copy of a traffic accident report.  The two insurance companies will order one and the drivers and injured passengers usually pick one up.  Certainly, the attorney representing the injured party has to order one.  This is additional revenue to the City.

If other cities are not investigating minor accidents, this should not be the standard in Las Vegas.  The general rule is that if the accident is not your fault then you want the police to investigate.  If the accident is your fault, don’t involve the police, if that is possible.

I know that there are a certain percentage of motor vehicle accidents where the parties decide to exchange information and don’t call Metro.  In these cases there is no ability to take written statements and document the facts of how each party describes the accident at the scene, when their  memory of the events is at it’s freshest.

Let’s talk about safety.  When there is a car accident out on the street traffic will still be  flowing.  Of course, you don’t want to move the vehicles until information is gathered and photographs are taken.  This creates a dangerous situation because law enforcement is not there at the scene to direct traffic.

Let’s talk about time.  Now, on most uninvestigated accidents, the parties are required by state law to file a station report of accident at a Metro substation or a SR1 form with the Department of Motor Vehicles.  This takes time.  Your time should be as valuable as traffic officer’s time.

It is likely that on uninvestigated accidents that there will be two (2) divergent reports of the accident after a time lapse which occurs when the drivers involved file their own reports.  It is a crime to give a false statement to a police officer, so having an officer at the scene promotes truthful reporting by the involved parties.  These accidents aren’t going to be reported accurately, and there is no way to reduce bias in self-reporting an accident unless an officer is present.

How will the new policy reduce fatal accidents?  All of this according to Metro is supposed to allow police to proactively enforce traffic laws in hopes of bringing down the number of fatal crashes.  However, if you are ticketed for an accident, this should cause the sensible person to reevaluate their driving habits so that the distraction (accidents are always caused by some type of distraction) that cased the instant accident does not cause another more serious accident.

How will the new policy reduce fatal accidents?  This new policy by Metro is bad for everyone.  Previously, Metro adopted the policy that it does not respond to motor vehicle accidents that occur on private property.  That policy makes those property damage claims and/or injury claims much more difficult.  I know that Metro’s budget has experienced cuts because of current economic conditions.  However, the investigation of minor property damage traffic accidents should not be eliminated.  Many criminals are taken off the streets because of minor accidents.  They may have bench warrants for serious crimes, suspended or revoked driver’s licenses, or they may be fugitives from justice skipping bail.  There may be illegal contraband in vehicles that can be seized.  If one party to an accident was drinking before an accident, then the investigation will take that driver off the street so that he can’t cause another accident.

Obviously, Metro has brought attention to their budget cuts by adopting this new policy.  I don’t see how this new policy promotes safety and prevents additional accidents, because when people causing accidents know the police won’t be involved, they are most likely to leave the scene or be inclined to give incomplete or false information to the victim.

Did you know Metro no longer investigates house burglaries?  The victim must fill out his own report.  What service will be cut next?

Legal Liability of Physical Education Teachers and Coaches

Prior to becoming an attorney, I taught high school physical education in Western Pennsylvania for 12 years. I also coached  gymnastics and track.  I have a masters degree in the  scientific basis of physical education and sports.  I then came to UNLV to work on my doctorate in Education Administration.  I taught physical education classes at UNLV for two years prior to entering law school.

My education and experiences in these areas gives me the unusual background which enables me to comment on the topic of legal liability of physical education teachers and coaches.

The thing that exposes physical education teachers  and coaches to  more  liability than classroom teachers is “movement”.  The amount of student movement in the classroom is limited; therefore, the classroom teacher does not have the liability exposure of a PE teacher or coach.  Add to that the fact that PE teachers and coaches deal with many students moving at the same time. We also have projectiles mixed in with his movement – such as baseballs, softballs, footballs, tennis balls, discus, shot-put, javelin,  etc. – which can cause injuries.   We also deal with various instruments that propel these projectiles to high speeds.  These include bats, golf clubs and  tennis rackets, etc.  You get the picture.  So, because of “movement” the chance of  injury to  our students and athletes is exponentially higher than the liability of the classroom teacher.

The premise of physical education is that movement of the human body carries with it certain physical,  social and emotional benefits.   So there is no way to eliminate movement form what  coaches and PE teachers do.

Furthermore, your facilities are of greater size than that of classrooms.  There is more areas for PE teachers to cover and supervise.  Your facilities include both indoor and outdoor areas.

Many of you also must deal with the presence of water in the form of swimming pools and showers.

Obviously, no students or athletes should ever be left in a swimming pool without teacher or coach supervision.  A swimming pool should remain locked when not in use and the teacher or coach should be the first person in the pool and the last person out.  The danger of drowning and slips and falls goes hand-in-hand with pools and shower facilities.

It is my position that a PE teacher should be the first person into a gym or pool, especially when equipment is present which can create a potential for injury.  The gym or pool should always remain locked when not in use, and the PE teacher and coach should be the last to leave.  This rule is probably a bit  idealistic; however I strongly believe that it is necessary.

Accordingly, in order to prevent accidental injury to our students and athletes, PE teachers and coachs must be concerned with safety of students and athletes much more so than the classroom teacher.

The law that applies to the primary liability exposure  of a PE teacher or coach is “negligence”.  Under the law of negligence a person has the duty to act in a reasonable manner when it come to the safety of others.  If you create an unreasonable risk of harm (by omission or by commission) and somebody gets hurt, your are responsible for the injured person’s damages in the form of medical expenses, loss of income and earnings capacity and for intangible damages for physical and mental pain and suffering.

In Nevada , if you are acting within the course and scope of your employment with a city, county or the state, you have a statutory  limit on your liability exposure of $75,000.00.  However, teachers and coaches get involved with little league, midget football, AAU sports programs, etc.,  where they are not in the course and scope of your employment with a public school. Thus, not every liability exposure will be protected by the statutory cap on damages. Private school teachers do not have the benefit of this liability cap.

When we coach activities outside the public school, we often use our personal cars to transport students. This exposes us to potential liability for injuries caused by our  negligent driving.

If an at fault accident occurs while we are working for a public school, then the school district will pay for damages, subject to the statutory cap.  You will be protected by the cap and you  won’t have to pay, so long as you were  in the course and scope of your employment. When you are involved in coaching or teaching an activity outside of the course and scope of your employment, your assets  are personally exposed.

Therefore,  it is important to be concerned about safety, because following reasonable safety procedures is your duty of reasonable care to your students and athletes.  Anytime that you cut corners on any safety procedure, you can be exposed to potential liability.

If you belong to any professional association, they may offer liability insurance at a nominal rate.  Volunteer coaches may be protected by liability coverage of the league in which you involved.   If you coach, you should inquire into these types of liability insurance protections which may or may not be available to your athletic association or league.

There are many basic rules that can protect you from liability.  These are too numerous to list, however the following are some of the more basic safety rules:

 

  1. Don’t hide in your office between classes.  You have the responsibility to supervise your students.  They can wander off and get involved in all sorts of mischief.  Students can get into fights and altercations with other students which may require your intervention.  There  are many entrances and exits to a PE or athletic complex.  You and your fellow teachers and coaches have  the duty to provide reasonable supervision  these entrances and exits.  This will involve the establishment of a plan and cooperation of your co-workers.
  2. Always keep your pool and gym locked between classes.  Don’t give your keys to students.  These areas should be locked between classes especially when there is equipment set up in the gym. Always check the pool and gym for the presence of students and athletes before you lock the doors.
  3. Mats should always be under any equipment which creates the possibility that as student may fall.  The greater the danger the more matting is required. Never allow the use of any equipment without adequate matting.
  4. It is my strong opinion that some activities should not be taught in PE classes.  Gymnastics should be limited to basic tumbling and basic vaulting skills.  If vaulting activities are used then students must be individually spotted.  Most students do not have the strength to perform skills while hanging or supporting their bodies with their arms.  Therefore there exists the likelihood of falls. If the fall occurs while some is in an inverted position this can cause is spinal injuries, paralysis and even death.  Trampoline (including various types of mini tramps) should ever be taught in PE classes.  If these tramps are used in extracurricular activities such as cheerleading and gymnastics, make sure that there is you have insurance to cover accidents.  You may be surprised that many insurance companies  won’t insure trampolines, or the premium for this coverage may be unaffordable.
  5. For example, remember that even innocent activities  like softball can be dangerous if basic rules are not followed. When there is a fly ball students must be instructed to call for it, and the persons not calling for the catch should back off.  There is always a risk of collision between students  especially when you have 30 students on the fielding team and not just 9.  Head to head collisions and collisions between large and small students carry with them the likelihood of serious injuries.  Remember that there are safety rules that apply to all sports.
  6. Check surfaces where water is present to determine if slip resistant surfaces are inadequate or worn.
  7. Do an inspection of your facilities on a monthly basis.  Report any maintenance repair problems to your maintenance department and to the school administration.
  8. Use appropriate safety equipment for each sport or activities.  If eye protection is reasonable then make provisions to obtain and to use it.
  9. Keep non-participating students out of harms way.
  10. If a student gives you a doctor’s excuse follow the physicians instructions.
  11. Go over safety rules with your students for each new sport or activity.
  12. Do not use strenuous exercise to discipline or punish students. Consult with your school nurse to determine if you have any students who have medical conditions that cannot tolerate any strenuous activity. Never have any physical contact with any student, unless he your safety and the safety of your students is in jeopardy.

When I taught PE, our high school district established a safety committee.  One person from each department was assigned to identify and report  safety hazards to buildings and grounds (maintenance) and to the superintendent.  We identified hazards and immediately repaired them so that they would not be a source of potential injury.

Risk management is concerned with the identification, assessment and control of risks that can endanger students and cause injuries.  Identifying risks is critical to safety.  Risk probabilities can be dividend into he following categories:

 

  1. Very likely to occur- high potential for serious injury.
  2. Some chance of occurrence- high potential for serious injury.
  3. Small chance of occurrence- high potential for serious  injury.
  4. Very little chance of occurrence- high potential for serious injury.

These should be addressed immediately and given high priority.

When the risk involves a medium and low potential for serious injury, these potential risks should be immediately addressed but should have less priority of than those risks which have the potential for serious injury.

Much of what is presented in this article may seem like common sense procedures to you. If this article does not trigger any proactive response from you, go back and read it again, because when it comes to safety, there is always room for improvement.

There always will be risks that cannot be fully identified, prevented or contained. Chances are that you will not be held responsible for those types of  risks because they are not foreseeable.  In preventing accidents decisions should be made that will prevent accidents thus mitigating your liability exposure.   Always be proactive and when it comes to preventing accidents and make sure that you have adequate insurance to protect your personal assets.

Medical Expenses in Personal Injury Cases: Reasonableness and Necessity

The purpose of damages in a civil case is to compensate a plaintiff for actual losses caused by the defendant wrongdoer. Therefore, the law provides that a wrongdoer in a personal injury case is responsible for the payment of the reasonable and necessary medical expenses incurred by the injured party as a result of the wrongdoer’s negligent or intentional acts or failures to act.

Generally speaking, the foundational requirements for the admissibility of medical bills into evidence in a personal injury case are misunderstood by many attorneys. First, the medical bills must be authenticated.  The authentication of medical bills can be accomplished by: (1) stipulation; (2) through the testimony of a custodian of records; (3) by an affidavit from the provider’s custodian of records; or (4) by the lack of objection during the disclosure provisions of the applicable rules of civil procedure such as NRCP 16.1.

To recover for his medical expenses a plaintiff in a personal injury case, such as a car accident or slip and fall injury, must present competent medical testimony that his treatment received in the form of ambulance, hospital, radiology, doctors appointments, physical therapy, chiropractic treatment,  medications, nursing services, pain management, surgery, anesthesia  and diagnostic tests were necessary as a result of the injuries caused by the defendant’s negligent conduct; and, that the cost or each item of medical expense was reasonable in amount.  These foundational requirements are separate and apart from the causation evidentiary requirements which I have covered in a prior blog.

Medical necessity means that the expense was incurred as a result of the injury caused by the defendant. Testimony by an expert witness is required to prove that a medical service was necessary.  Additionally, to meet the necessity requirement, the plaintiff may need to  present evidence to show that the medical service was standard versus experimental, appropriate and non-fraudulent, so that the bill can be admitted into evidence and the jury or judge can consider the medical bill in determining the defendant’s obligation to pay for this item medical expense.

The terms reasonable and necessary are also utilized in auto insurance policies and health insurance policies to invoke the insurance company’s  responsibility to pay for any medical expense and limit payments only to those medical bills that are both reasonable and necessary.  Many times these terms are not defined in the policy, or are briefly or unclearly defined.

Medical necessity means that the treatment was made necessary as a result of injuries from the accident, as opposed to treatment related to another medical condition. (The medical necessity requirement comes into issue when the injuries claimed are aggravations of pre-existing conditions such as arthritis, or when a plaintiff has been involved in multiple injury accidents).  In some instances the defense will take the position that, in order for medical treatment to be necessary, it must have some benefit in improving the plaintiff’s condition.

However, in some jurisdictions, when a plaintiff gives detailed description of the treatment procedures and clearly relates them to injuries from the subject accident, the medical bills can be properly admitted into evidence upon lay testimony, rather than upon the testimony of a medical expert.

Some states that have case law that holds that a defendant can receive the benefit of write-offs or adjustments deducted from a provider’s charges pursuant to insurance contracts.  Other states have adopted the collateral source rule.  The theory behind the collateral source rule is that a wrongdoer should not receive the benefit of payments made by insurance independently procured by the injured party and for which the injured party has paid  premiums. There are some states that have adopted the collateral source rule, that still give the defendant the benefit write-offs.  The argument for this position is that: (1) The plaintiff receives a windfall if he can receive compensation for write-offs; (2) No collateral source paid the written-off amounts; (3) Write-off amounts are illusory medical expenses and the plaintiff does not actually have to pay them. This position does not take into consideration that the injured plaintiff has to pay for his insurance coverage directly or indirectly (as a benefit of his employment) in order to obtain these write-offs, which is a part of the rationale for the collateral source rule.

A plaintiff also has to provide competent evidence that the cost of each medical expense is reasonable.  This means that the medical charge is customary in the medical community and is not inflated. A medical witness who testifies on the issue of reasonableness is not always required to  be a doctor, however some form of medical testimony must be presented (Medical billing witness or a nurse who is familiar with customary charges).  A doctor can testify as to medical necessity and to the reasonable and customary nature of the medical charges.  A defendant is only responsible for reasonable medical expenses, and is not necessarily responsible for the full amount charged by the health care provider for services rendered. Sometimes it is necessary, in cases where the plaintiff does not have a retained medical expert, to call as witnesses every practitioner who rendered the plaintiff medical care.  In cases where there is a doctor manages the patient’s care  and refers the injured patient for follow-up care with other providers, the referring doctor can testify as to causation of the plaintiff’s injuries as well as the reasonableness and necessity of the medical treatment provided by other practitioners, under circumstances where he is familiar with the charges for the ancillary services provided to the patient. As you can see, this saves many thousands of dollars in expert witness fees.

In order to recover for future medical expenses there must be medical testimony that states to a reasonable degree of medical certainty what future medical expenses will result from the original injury and the reasonable cost of those medical services. In the event that those medical services are projected over a lengthy period, then the cost of the future medical expenses must be reduced to present value.

The foundational requirements for admitting medical bills into evidence are not uniform. Some jurisdictions are more liberal than others and provide for the use of affidavits instead of live expert testimony.  The case law on reasonable and necessary medical expenses is not consistent, especially when it comes to collateral source issues.  There are very few cases that give a detailed explanation and discussion of the foundational requirements for the admission of medical bills into evidence.


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